Inflation and Debt

THE INTEREST RATE you’re charged on a loan will likely bear some relationship to the current inflation rate. Prevailing interest rates are typically above inflation, so that lenders make money, even after the corrosive impact of inflation is factored in. In the case of mortgages and car loans, the premium over inflation may be relatively modest. In the case of credit cards, it can be huge.

That might make high inflation seem like a major enemy, just as it is for investors. But it depends on the type of loan. Rising inflation and rising interest rates can be bad news for borrowers if they have loans with floating interest rates, such as credit card debt and adjustable-rate mortgages. It’s a different story, however, with fixed-rate loans.

Imagine that you took out a 30-year fixed-rate mortgage at 4%, at a time when inflation was 2%. If inflation then accelerated to 5%, your mortgage payments would stay the same, but your salary would likely increase with the inflation rate. Even though your income is worth no more in inflation-adjusted terms, you would be better off because a major expense—your mortgage—hasn’t increased along with consumer prices.

We saw this scenario in the high inflation 1970s. Homeowners with mortgages were major beneficiaries, while those who lent to them suffered, because the loans were repaid with depreciated dollars. If 2021’s and 2022’s high inflation persists—2023 suggests it won’t—we could see the same phenomenon again. What if, instead, inflation and interest rates fall from today’s levels? This might be a reason to refinance fixed-rate loans or pay down debt faster than scheduled.

Next: Credit Reports

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